What are the RFID applications?
We all know that in order for an RFID system to function properly, the reader and electronic tag must be on the same frequency, otherwise communication and recognition cannot be carried out. Different operating frequencies also have different operating principles, recognition distances and performance. RFID is divided into different frequency categories such as low-frequency LF, high-frequency HF, Super high frequency UHF and microwave in the world. The operating principles of RFID in each frequency band have certain differences. The operating principles of LF and HF are electromagnetic coupling, while RFID in UHF and microwave bands is the way of electromagnetic emission. The difference in working frequency has led to different application scenarios.
LF low-frequency RFID (125KHz~134KHz). Low frequency RFID is mainly used to achieve the communication process through the coupling of the reader and the antenna coil of the electronic tag. Low frequency electronic tags are passive tags, and their working energy is obtained through the inductive coupling effect of the reader and writer. They usually have a short working distance, usually around 10cm. The advantage of low-frequency RFID is that it can pass through most materials except metal, and its packaging forms are diverse. Its price mainly depends on the choice of packaging form, and its service life can usually reach more than ten years. Compared to other frequency bands, the price of LF low-frequency readers is correspondingly higher.
LF low-frequency RFID is mainly used in animal husbandry management, car anti-theft system, keyless door system, vehicle management, Door security and related security systems.
HF high-frequency RFID (13.56MHz). The working principle of high-frequency RFID and low-frequency RFID is to achieve communication process through inductive coupling, and the way in which high-frequency electronic tags obtain working ability is also the same, both of which belong to passive tags. The working distance of high-frequency RFID is much larger than that of low-frequency RFID, which can reach around 1m. High frequency RFID can penetrate most substances except metals and has a faster reading speed than low frequency RFID. In addition, its global use is not subject to many restrictions, and its price has a significant advantage compared to low frequencies.
The biggest advantage of high-frequency RFID in terms of reading and writing compared to low-frequency RFID is batch reading and faster transmission rate. The main application scenarios of high-frequency RFID can be subdivided from the perspectives of “cards” and “tags”. High frequency RFID “card” applications, including bank cards, public transportation cards, access control cards, etc., as well as campus all-in-one cards that can be seen everywhere in our daily lives. High frequency RFID “tag” applications are mainly used in fields such as book and archive management, anti-counterfeiting traceability, unmanned retail, industry, medical treatment, etc.
UHF RFID (860MHz~960MHz). The working principle of ultra high frequency RFID is backscattering. The RFID tag is located in the far field of the antenna radiation field of the RFID reader. The antenna radiation field of the reader writer provides RF energy for the passive tag to wake up the tag. The working frequency varies among different countries and regions, such as 902-905MHz in North America and 950-956MHz in Japan. UHF has a shorter wavelength and is therefore more easily absorbed by liquids. The antenna of RFID tag is generally strip and tag shaped, and the antenna has linear and circular Polarizability to meet the corresponding application requirements. The transmission rate of UHF RFID is higher, which can read large quantities of electronic tags in a short time.
Ultra high frequency RFID’s powerful reading ability and price advantages make many applications possible, and it is also the mainstream direction of future RFID development. It has numerous application scenarios, including shoes and clothing, logistics packages, supermarkets, unmanned retail, books and archives, industry, agriculture, asset management, tires, catering, aviation luggage, medical care, and so on.